Living with the Covid : New requirements of etiquette, human behavior, knowledge and skills for getting recruited.

 This article is based on the perspective of a discussion that was held in the 89th International conference organized by the University of Engineering and Management, Jaipur with the Smart Society USA.

1.Mr. Nand Kishore Chaudhary, Chairman & Managing Director, Jaipur Rugs Group discussed : 

– Customization of products will be necessary as per the new requirements.

– Strategies will have to recalibrated with focus on customer engagement satisfying the changing needs of customers

–          Role of technology will be the main driver in the business process with digitization and online selling being the key.

– The supply chain will need to be redefined

– There has to be the sense of urgency with the CEOs and MDs leading from the front.

2. Mr. Gaurav Chopra, HR Leader, Allianz discussed : 

–          In today’s time technology is the driving force in any organization but the workforce has also changed or evolved for e.g.  the GIG workforce  which consists of freelance and contractual workers.

–          In many operational procedures which require standard responses human intervention has been replaced by AI or bots.

–          However, technology or new procedures will not lead to job loss, as existing employees are upskilling themselves to take up new roles and responsibilities

3. Mr. Rajat Kapoor, Managing Director, Oil & Gas and Energy discussed : 

–          The best of companies did not foresee such a major disruption. Businesses who had announced new acquisitions and takeovers have drawn back and consolidated themselves.

–          Post –Covid everything’s changed and starting July reconstruction is happening with new policies and framework which are different for every individual company that is being drawn up.

–          Sectors like eCommerce and certain manufacturing industries like Auto and bicycle are bound to see growth.

4. Ms. Soma Banerjee, Member of SME Council, NASSCOM East, Co-Founder & CEO of Business Brio emphasized  on  New and Emerging  Models of Employee/Employer  Engagement in the IT Industry. Her topic of discussion included key points like :

–          Synergy between employer and employee in working for the betterment of the organization.

–          Engagement strategy based on three principles which are Trust, Caring and Communication.

–          The right way of Engagement is by Inspiring Leadership, providing better career development and learning opportunities along with a Transparent Internal Communication.

–          Use of technology like AI for hiring as well as Employee engagement have brought a lot of advantages like hiring time coming down, interview of a larger pool of applicants as well as a considerable saving in recruitment costs.

– Mr. Vishal Bansal, Talent Acquisition Lead, HP Inc (has moderated the panel discussion)

5. Mr. Avijit Laha, HR Head,Business Unit, Tata Consultancy Services  stressed on how teams have to reorient themselves into the new normal and for new joiners in a virtual team .He also highlighted several points like :

  • Have more collaboration, faster acclimatization and accountability and the ability to multitask.
  • Be aware of the business values and ethics and understand the significance of data privacy and security in the new scenario which involves a lot of remote and digital working.
  • Acclimatize  to the process automation happening in the organization
  • Have a culture for a continuous learning and adapting vis a vis the job

 

6.  Ms. Sagorika Kantharia, Ex-Head HR (CHRO), Jagran Prakashan Ltd said:

  • Adaptability of the employee to the new normal as a workplace has changed exponentially and the quicker the employee is adapting to the changes he or she will become valuable to the organization.
  • Emotional Intelligence while working remotely how to manage and maintain professional relationship
  • Creativity and Innovation along with Design Thinking need to be adopted by existing employees in the new scenario.

 

 7. Mr. Rohan Lele, HR Leader, Zydex Industries discussed on  Behavioral attributes which need to be adopted keeping with the current scenario with highlighted points mentioned below :

  • To have a learning attitude by keeping oneself constantly updated to what’s happening in one’s profession.
  • One needs to move out of their comfort zones and adapt to new roles by adding value to their contribution.
  • Developing complementary skills which add value to their profession and career.

 

8.  Ms. Smita Nair Jain, Senior Divisional Vice-President, Sears Holdings India said :

  • Stressed on the need to upgrade both hard skills and soft skills in the current pandemic situation where the whole scenario has changed. Highlighted some of the skills which are going to be in demand because of the changed situation.
  • Cloud computing skills will be in great demand as remote working is the new norm and this technology solution helps organizations transition to smoother functions with minimal disruptions.
  • Another skill sets which new job seekers can enhance or learn are  Cyber Security and Data Security experts as digital working has become the new normal

Mr. Anish Viswanath

Senior Manager- Corporate Relations and Career Development 

University of Engineering and Management, Jaipur

 

GREEN-TOWNSHIP: A SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TOWARDS A HEALTHY COMMUNITY

Eco-township is of great importance for making the countryside beautiful. . Demands for energy, water supply, safe waste disposal and transportation management will drive towards Eco friendly infrastructure. We should improve the drainage system to minimize wastage and reuse it in other ways and use the energy of the sun to give the optimum heating and cooling effect in a room during different seasons, saving electricity. There are small scale wastewater treatment plants for purifying the sewer water and reuse it for gardening and washing purposes. We will design a green township rating system naturalizing preservation of the environment. To meet the needs of a healthy society in urban areas, there is a huge burden of resources. Thus eco-friendly and environmental sustainable practices are important tools in sustainable development.

Introduction:

A township is a combination of several communities which is a combination of several sectors, several townships from a city. Township ranges in sizes & land uses. Township can be predominantly commercial, industrial or retail but should necessarily comprise residential components. At least 25% of the total build-up area (in sq.m) within the township should be earmarked for residential use. Introduction of cities are the important components for social and economic growth of a country. The urban sector contributes nearly 50-60% to the nation’s GDP. Rising population growth, traffic congestion and improper waste management have resulted in a decreased level of quality of life and environment in urban areas. Indian Green Building Council has launched IGBC Green Township rating system. The rating system is an important tool which enables the design engineer to apply the Green concept to reduce the environmental impacts. However, it is to be noted that the rating system is not applicable for individual building and land parcels.

Benefits of Green Township

Benefits of green township application of IGBC Green Township rating system in large developments would address national priorities leading to benefits, such as efficient land use, habitat preservation and restoration, effective transport management, efficient use of resources and enhanced quality of life for the occupants.

Efficient Land Use

Now a day, development has become synonymous with physical expansion or growth. There is a need for significant changes in the pattern of land use and construction that will provide communities with better quality of life and at the same time conserve natural resources. Green Township rating system address the impacts of urban sprawl by encouraging compact, mixed-use developments and promotes higher urban densities without affecting the quality of life.

Habitat Preservation & Restoration:

Conventional development is generally insensitive to the natural environment. Such developments may scar the landscape; take prime agricultural land out of production or destroy biodiversity and natural habitats. The Green Township rating system is designed to facilitate restoration and preservation of the natural environment by encouraging strategies that aid the interface between the built environment & natural environment. This approach will not only enhance the fabric of the planned development but also provide environments conducive for living and working.

Efficient Transportation Management:

Traffic congestion, long distance commuting, rising levels of air and noise pollution are pressing issues in today’s cities, Efforts to relieve congestion such as, constructing flyovers, road widening etc., are good initiatives but may not address issues such as fossil fuel consumption and associated emission, ‘Green Townships’ rating system addresses these issues by encouraging effective and efficient transportation management strategies, Such strategies include increasing opportunities for bicycling, encouraging pedestrian friendly network; reduction in the number of automobile trips, promoting public transportation and use of alternative vehicles.

Efficient Use of Resources:

Perhaps the most challenging problem facing our cities today is to meet the ever-rising demand for power, water supply and waste management. Meeting this demand requires an enormous amount of investment infrastructure. Efficient and effective use of resources is thus vital in augmenting the existing infrastructure.

Water Efficiency:

Most of the Asian countries are water stressed, and in countries like India, the water table has reduced drastically over the last decade. Green Township encourages use of water in a self-sustainable manner through reducing, recycling and reusing strategies and can save potable water to an extent of 30-50%.

Energy Efficiency:

Green Townships can reduce energy consumption of infrastructural equipment through energy efficient street lighting, motors, pumps etc. The energy savings that can be realized by adopting this rating programme in infrastructural equipment can be to the tune of 20-30%. Further, on-site power generation using various renewable energy technologies and other clean fuels can significantly reduce the load on grid power supply.

Waste Management: Green townships encourage effective waste management strategies by facilitating the segregating of waste at source and promoting the reuse / co-processing of products and materials.

The essential building blocks of a Smart city are:

  • Development of effective broadband networks that support ICT and digital applications throughout the city.
  • Deployment of embedded system, smart devices, sensors and actuators for real-time data management, alerts and information processing for the city administration.
  • Providing Smart urban spaces that leverage ICT to deliver sustainable services like electric car charge points, energy-efficient buildings and Wi-Fi hotspots & information kiosks.
  • Implementation of online services across different sectors including city environment, energy and transport services, security services, education and health services etc.

IGBC PLANNING GUIDELINES

The following guidelines are used as reference guidelines in India for planning of Eco town

  1. Site selection & planning
  • Avoid Development of inappropriate sites

Do not develop buildings, roads or parking areas on portions of sites that meet any one of the following criteria:

  •  Within 150 m of any wetland or restrict development from wetlands as per regulation laid by state /central authority.
  •    Land whose elevation is lower than the maximum observed flood levels or 100 year flood level, whichever is higher.

2. Soil erosion and control

Adopt measures listed below to control erosion, during construction and post occupancy:

  •   Implement soil erosion control measures confirming best management practices highlighted in the national building code of India.
  •    For areas where the top soil is fertile, remove, stack & protect the top soil from the development areas and reuse for landscaping. For areas where the top soil is not available, provide a detailed narrative justifying the site condition.

3. Preservation existing trees & water bodies

  •     Preserve at least 25% of the existing trees within the project.
  •    For every tree that is uprooted, plant at least 10 new saplings.
  •     In sites having water bodies, protect and restore 100% of the existing water      bodies.
  •    Retain natural topography
  •    Retain at least 25% of the total site area with natural topography.
  •    Local fruits & vegetable produce
  •    Create growing spaces for fruit & vegetable requirements to cater the           community needs.
  •     Urban heat island effect
  •    For footpaths,pathways, roads, surface parking and other non-impervious areas within the township, provide tree cover (within 5 years) or use light colored/ high Alberto materials (reflectance of at least 0.3) or open grid pavements.

^ Land use planning

^ Land use optimization

  •     Design residential & non-residential to meet the FSI/FAR prescribed by the existing local bye-laws. Wherever permissible under the law, explore opportunities to exceed the required FSI/FAR.
  •     Earmark at least 25% of the total built up area within the township as residential areas.

4. Basic amenities within the community

  •     For residential areas , provide minimum basic amenities as listed below, within 800 meters from the center of the residential sector:

*   Super market/grocery & stationery shop

*    ATM

*    Medical clinic

*    Laundry

*    Electricity/water bills payment centers

*     Parks with walking tracks

*    Sports club/ fitness center

*    Coffee shop / restaurant

*    Internet cafe

*    Beauty salon

*    Hardware shop

^  Provide minimum 4 basic amenities as listed below, within 2 km from the boundary of the sector :

*   Bank

*   Post office/courier service

*   Fire station

*   Police station

*   Library

*   School

*   Community hall

5. Housing typologies

*   Provide at least two of the following housing typologies within each sector:

*   High income group(HIG)

*   Middle income group(MIG)

*   Low income group (LIG)

6. Green buildings

*   Design green buildings within the project with appropriate green building rating systems, such as IGBC and LEED India.

^ Transportation planning

^ Long term transportation plan

Develop and implement a long term transportation plan that includes the following:

*   Planning measures to control future traffic volumes.

*   Measures to mitigate the impacts due to vehicular emissions.

*   Strategies to incorporate public transportation facilities such as MRT, bus service etc.

7.  Public transportation facilities

*   Provide bus stops within a distance of 1.0 km from the center of the sector

*   All bus stop facilities should be sheltered with adequate seating capacity and display of bus routes & timetables.

*   Provide restroom (toilets) at alternate bus stops.

8.  Eco-friendly transportation services

*   Provide 100% intra- city Eco-friendly public bus shuttle services.

*   Provide Eco-friendly refueling facilities (CNG, bio-fuel etc.).

9. Pedestrian network

*   Design pedestrian networks between local transit facilities, residential, commercial and other developments.

*   Provide shades for footpaths and pathways through tree cover for comfortable pedestrian access.

IGBC Green New Buildings Rating System

IGBC has set up the Green New Buildings Core Committee to develop the rating program. This committee consisted of key stakeholders, including architects, builders, consultants, developers, owners, institution, manufacturers and industry representatives. The committee, with adverse background and knowledge has enriched the rating system, both in its content and process.

The rating system has been developed based on materials and technologies that are presently available. The objective of IGBC Green New Building Rating System is to facilitate a holistic approach to create environment friendly buildings, through architectural design, water efficiency, effective handling of waste, energy efficiency, sustainable buildings, and focus on occupant comfort & well-being.

Some unique aspects addressed in this rating system as follows:

  • Recognition for architectural excellence through integrated design approach.
  • Recognition for passive architectural features.
  • Structural design optimization with regard to steel and cement. This is a developmental credit. Projects are encouraged to attempt this credit, so as to help IGBC in developing baselines for future use.
  • Water use reduction for construction. This is also a developmental credit.

^ Prospectus of a township to achieve sustainable development:

  •  The aim to attain Eco-friendly Township is to provide urban transportation, solid waste management and sewer water recycling. Energy efficient processes include climate responsive design practices, reducing dependence on natural resources, identifying the levels of   minimum energy consumption and increasing the use of renewable power. Energy costing should include life cycle costing with an attempt to achieve 40%-60% reduction in energy cost. The water management for sustainable township consists of water conservation and net water positive projects. Use waste material in place of construction material to utilize the agriculture and industrial waste.

Benefits of Eco-friendly construction

The advantage of Eco-friendly construction over the traditional construction methods – more efficient use of energy and reduction of human impact on the environment. There will be a continued rise of energy consumption which exclusively depends on the burning of fossil fuel. There are sustainable and environmentally friendlier sources of energy too, however, less than one fifth of global energy is obtained from renewable sources.  Reduced energy consumption automatically reduces their carbon footprint and helps reduce the human impact on the environment. In addition, green construction typically uses environmentally friendly materials and construction methods which are good for both the environment and human health. Eco friendly buildings are a safer and healthier place to live in, while their renovation or demolition reduces or eliminates exposure to potentially hazardous materials. The only disadvantage of Eco friendly construction is perhaps initially higher investment, especially if opting for the type that includes generation of energy on-site. However, the initially higher investment for an Eco friendly construction pays off in the long term and it is less expensive to own an environmentally friendly house than a conventionally built home. There are, of course, less expensive Eco friendly construction methods too and an environmentally friendly home is not necessarily significantly costlier than conventionally built homes.

Concluding Remarks

The term Eco-cities or sustainable cities have broad definitions based on the principle of sustainable development. The IGBC green township rating system promotes the creation of diverse, connected, affordable, safe and healthy communities that enhance social interaction and ownership. This paper has discussed the way of developing an Eco -town. By waste management, finding efficiency and limiting use of natural resources an individual can increase sustainability.

 

^ Reference

  1. IGBC Green Township Manual
  2. IGBC Green New building rating system (version 3.0)

 

Authors :

Prof. Subhro Chakraborty
HOD, Civil Engineering,
University of Engineering &Management (UEM), Jaipur

Prof. Paulami Das Choudhury
IGBC Co-Ordinator, Civil Engineering,
University of Engineering &Management (UEM), Jaipur

 

Futuretronix Education

 

One night My 60 years old self inquired , ‘Hey Mayukh you became the best promising entrepreneur , still you are educating yourself, with full enthusiasm like the past.’

I replied,

Because till now, I am a true student of EEE (Education -Engineering -Entrepreneurship) and an admirer of FE (Futuretronix Education) the best education institute which keeps my passion awake.

Touching the MileStone:

I remember my school days, when I used to practice cricket for CAB(Cricket Association of Bengal) under 14 category, It educated me how to become an all-rounder and how to convert into a good leader.

When I started helping  my classmates and juniors in solving their queries, I thought I could be a good mentor.

I developed an aura of affection towards the Electro power system in Physics which made me opt for a Diploma in “Electrical and Electronics Engineering”.

UEM (University of Engineering & Management) gave me a chance to nurture with the current through Electronics & Communication Engineering  department supported by a well-equipped lab  in BTech to fulfill my dream to be an Engineer.

 

During my college days I discovered I could be the best mentor like Prof. Sandip Sir (Head of the department –Electronics and Communication Engineering) and best guide like Prof. Dr. Biswajoy Chatterjee   (Vice Chancellor of UEM) so I decided to assemble a set up for numerous awaited visions of my  young bright-eyed and passionate thrives. But in the meantime, I got the job in Ryatus Proinfra as a Signaling and Telecom Engineer : Project.

 

 

When I remember my childhood days , I can visualize the melodies which came out of my computer, I felt it consumes more power and I asked myself, ‘why can’t I fix that problem?’ I can have that much data storing capability on my Mobile or Pen drive like the Computer. So I decided to opt for a Master degree in VLSI design and Technology, followed by a  Research in VLSI Design field. Now I help students using my invention , ‘SAVIODRIVE’ , considered as the most compressed device.

But dreams should have a physical existence and should impact to the reality. To enhance my vision, I configured my own start-up Futuretronix Education, a conceptualized method with innovative- technical -target-oriented solutions along with FuturetronixEducation youtube channel where aspirants would get online  preparation of ESE, GATE, PSU, JE.  Here, Students acquire all materials through the most compressed device known as”SAVIODRIVE” which consumes less power and renders more data storage space. Today the satisfied faces of students acts as a gadget of my satisfaction.

 

My parents used to say, ‘Never stop learning&Be a Good Human Being’. My elder sister used to say, ‘Listen & learn,earn Respect & Love, don’t claim.’

Their voice functioned as energy boosters and it still triggers by enthusiasm which creates a road of acquiring more knowledge and I promised to do that till my last breath.My target is to empower our society with the user friendly ‘SAVIODRIVE’.

 

The saying which I always follow,

‘as we look ahead into the next century, leaders will be those who empower others.’- Bill Gates.

 

 

 

Tring Tring !(alarm rings)

 

 

 

The 23 years old I woke up, stopped the  alarm, smiled, and looked into this frame on my wall.

 

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Mayukh Kotal,
Student, Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering (ECE),
University of Engineering & Management (UEM), Jaipur,
Founder, Futuretronix Education

The Saga of an optimum future ……

“Engineering is about using science to find creative practical solutions, It is a noble profession” : Queen Elizabeth II.

Engineering has been one of the most sought after professions in Asia’s third largest economy, where more than a million engineers graduate every year. India saw a boom in technical education after it opened up its economy in 1991, which allowed the IT sector to thrive.

The mid-1990s saw a huge spike in the number of engineering graduates, as the demand for them increased in sectors ranging from IT to infrastructure.
The phenomenal rise in engineering degrees also lead to a boom in the technical education sector with private colleges mushrooming all across the country. In the 2015 financial year, India had 3,389 graduate engineering colleges.

But it has been claimed that in 2011 by Nasscom, the trade association of IT and business processing units, that less percentage of India’s IT engineering graduates were employable.

Now, does that mean that engineering should not be chosen by students as a course of graduation studies? Or, putting it simply, would you choose to study engineering today?

The point is to be drawn towards the fact (which is misinterpreted) that “less number of engineering graduates are employable”, and the word used was “employable”, and not “employed”. And we mean to say over here that most number of graduates and most by a long margin are those who are actually engineering graduates, and this is a fact right from all the years and dates mentioned above.

To put things in perspective, growth of an economy and the per capita income is directly variable with the number of jobs acquired by the citizens of a country. A shielded modus operandi of grabbing a job is the safest mechanism to secure the future with ways of converting the odds into options .

Maximum number of jobs are in the field of engineering, and here comes in a big fallacy in demand and supply. It is a true fact that in spite of engineering being the biggest job providing sector, many engineers are still unemployed, which appears to be an implication that demand of engineers are less than supply, but this appearance of implication is wrong. In fact, right from the years stated above to till today, the demand of engineers are much more than supply, which is proven from the fact that at any point of time, there is a huge vacancy in all IT and core sectors of engineering.

Why is this fallacy? This is because of the fact that ample amount of individuals having skill in other sectors had chosen engineering as a course of graduation, because of its high rising demand. And for a safer future. But because they belonged to a different sector within inside themselves, they failed to perform, leading to their unemployment in spite of the huge requirement in the market.

But this is what has affected and reduced the choice of engineering courses by the students in modern days, leading to the dearth of availability of good engineers, which the engineering sector always demands. Today there is a huge requirement both in the IT and core sector of engineering, which the companies have failed to fill up, in spite of their conduct of different recruiting events throughout the year.

Because of the statement “less employable”, which has been wrongly interpreted, even good students and as a matter of fact brilliant students have opted out of engineering, which is hampering the demand and supply. The demand of good engineers are huge and it is increasing in an exponential way.

The brilliant students and good students (who are good or average technically), should always choose to study engineering, as this is the course to provide the maximum of jobs for the last 20 years and the coming 20 years and to continue.

Mr. Saurav Mookherji,
Content creator,
IEM and UEM group

Prof. Dr. Biswajoy Chatterjee, Vice-Chancellor,
University of Engineering & Management (UEM), Jaipur

Visible Light Communication- An Introduction

Wireless Communication has gone through several paradigm shifts and the idea of Visible Light Communication is nothing new. Fire and smoke signaling were used as a means of long-distance communications in ancient civilizations like the ancient Greeks, the Romans, Chinese and American Indians.

In the early 1800s, the US military used a wireless solar telegraph called “Heliograph” that signals using Morse code flashes of sunlight reflected by a mirror. The navy often uses blinking lights, i.e. Aldis lamps, to send messages also using Morse code from one ship to another. In 1880, the first example of VLC technology was demonstrated by Alexander Graham Bell with his “photophone” (shown in Fig. 1) that used sunlight reflected off a vibrating mirror and a selenium photocell to send voice on a light beam.

Fig. 1: Demonstration of Photophone

During the last ten years, the emergence of visible light communications (VLC) is witnessed. Along the EM spectrum, as the wavelength decreases, the frequency as well as the energy of the waves increases. The visible light band occupies the frequency range from 400 THz to 800 THz and the radio wave occupies the band from 3 kHz to 300 GHz. Radio Frequency (RF) has been the most widely used portion of the EM spectrum for communication purposes, mainly due to little interference in the frequency band and wide area coverage. With a rapidly decreasing RF spectrum and fueled by solid-state lighting (SSL) technology, VLC is emerging as analternative technology and a solution to overcome the overcrowded RF wireless communication technology. These SSL sources, being semiconductor devices, come with an additional feature. Their light intensity can be varied at very high speeds, and so their functionality can be extended utilizing intensity modulation (IM) to also become a wireless communication device.

In VLC, information is transmitted by modulating the intensity of an optical source operating in the visible range of the EM spectrum at a rate much faster than the response time of the human eye, which is effectively perceived as a steady glow. Typical VLC links use LOS configuration, due to its illumination purpose. Furthermore, lower path loss and dispersion over short distances gives way to higher bandwidth. LEDs emit incoherentlight, hence Intensity Modulation (IM) is done where the transmitted signal is modulated into the instantaneous optical power of the LED. Since IM changes instantaneous power of the LED, Direct Detection (DD) is the only feasible down conversion method. DD uses a photodiode to convert the incident optical signal power into a proportional current. The setup is far simpler than coherent detection used in RF, where a local oscillator is used to extract the baseband signal from the carrier.

Visible Light Communication (VLC) is still in the early stage. Some challenges and limitations needed to be solved. Modulation techniques for different data rates are standardized by IEEE 802.15.7. For low data rates of 11.67 kbps to 266.6 kbps PHY I type of VLC is offered. PHY II operates from 1.25 Mbps to 96 Mbps and PHY III operates between 12 Mbps to 96 Mbps. PHY I and PHY II are defined for the single light source and supports on-off keying (OOK) and variable pulse position modulation (VPPM). PHY III uses multiple optical sources with different frequencies (colors) and uses a particular modulation format known as color shift keying. Most indoor VLC so far uses PHY I type of VLC with OOK modulation scheme. Unfortunately, this modulation scheme has a lower data rate as stated earlier, and is susceptible to Intersymbol Interference (ISI). To reduce the effects of ISI, forward error correction methods are suggested and another approach to the solution of ISI and lower data rate problem is optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). OFDM is resilient to the effect of ISI and provides a higher data rate. But, this higher data rate can be achieved at very high signal to noise ratio (SNR) values and the problem of high peak average power ratio (PAPR) prevails.

Apart from the challenges faced in modulation techniques required in VLC to maintain higher data rates, two more important challenges are there for communication using VLC. They are flicker mitigation and dimming support. Flicker refers to the fluctuation of the brightness of the light. Any potential flicker resulting from modulating the light sources for communication must be mitigated because flicker can cause noticeable, negative or harmful physical/psychological impact on humans. Thus, modulation process involved in VLC should not introduce any noticeable flicker.

 

Dimming support is another important consideration for VLC and was identified as one of the key challenges in VLC by IEEE 802.15.7 task group. Dimming methods can be of two types: analog and digital dimming. Depending on the methods it can be classified into two categories: modulation based dimming methods and coding based dimming methods. One of the most popular modulation schemes used in VLC is on-off keying (OOK), where binary bit ‘1’ or ‘0’ are represented by ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ pulses respectively. OOK dimming is achieved by altering the ‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ levels of the OOK symbol. But, this scheme lowers the achievable bit rate as the light dims. Similarly, in pulse position modulation scheme dimming was implemented by designing variable-PPM (VPPM), which combines PPM and PWM. Though VPPM provides full dimming range to the VLC link the communication range is reduced due to low energy per bit low-intensity levels. Similarly, in coding dimming methods, coding schemes like inverse source coding (ISC), Reed-Muller (RM) code, and forward error coding (FEC). Although this coding technique can provide stable brightness it can only support specific dimming levels.

 

Fig. 2 Application of Indoor VLC in an office.

Prof. Sandip Das,
Head, Department of Electronics Engineering,
University of Engineering & Management (UEM), Jaipur

 

 

Demand Side Management: In Electrical Power Systems

  1. INTRODUCTION

Smart Grid [1], [2] constitute a perception of the next generation power systems associated with various control and sensing technologies, with effective communication at transmission and distribution side to fulfill optimal demand in a foolproof way. The important features [2] of modern grid, according to U.S. Energy grid report are consumer comity, fool proof healing ability, resistance ability during faulty condition, potential to use generation options with storage, market dependent well organized operations and better power caliber in optimal way. This advance grid is motivated by several techno-economical and socio-economical factors in association with environmental benefits.

Demand Response (DR) can be given as the adjustment in usage of electricity by end users from their normal daily utilization figures for changes in price of electricity during that time. Advance definition of DR is given by “designing the incentive payments to engender minimum use of electricity at the same time when market prices are high or system reliability is under the threat” [3].

Consumers can respond in three ways [3-7]:

  1. Reduce consumption at targeted times but maintain same consumption figures at other times. This type of respond has a temporary loss of consumer’s comfort.
  2. Shift consumption from targeted times to other time cycle so that overall consumption is the same; or
  3. Use on-site generation.

Fig.1. A simplified graph of the electricity market with and without DSM [31]

In electricity system should be a ideal coordination between supply and demand in real time for modest operation but there is complexity i.e. the level of supply and demand usually change briskly due to many reasons involve, generation unit outages, line outages at transmission and distribution side and quick changes in load. The infrastructure of power system is heavily capital accelerated; so DR  is one of the cheapest resources available for optimal operation of the system [3]. Another important and main market profit is the reduction in price volatility in the wholesale market. A small depletion in demand will result in a big depletion in cost of generation and electricity price in real time, as shown in Fig. 1.

 

  • 1.1 Classifications of Demand Response Program

Fig.2. Classification of DR programs [31]

Various DR programs are shown in Fig. 2. DR programs can be divided into two main categories, Despatchable or Incentive Based Programs (IBP) and Non Despatchable or Price Based Programs (PBP) [3][8]. Despatchable programs are further classified into two categories, classical and market based programs. Classical programs include Direct Load Control (DLC) and Interruptible or Curtailable services (I/Cs). Market based programs divided into four categories; Emergency DR Programs (EDRP), Demand Bidding (DB), Capacity Market Programs (CMP) and Ancillary services market Programs (ASMP).

PBP programs are based on spirited pricing rates i.e. electricity prices rates fluctuate hourly and not follow the flat rate pattern. These rates classified in to three main categories, Time of Use (TOU) price, Real Time Pricing (RTP) and Critical Peak Price (CPP) which is further divided into two categories; Extreme Day Price (EDP), Extreme CPP (ED-CPP).

  • 1.2 Demand Response Benefits

Fig.3. Benefits related to DR [31]

Fig. 3 shows the benefits related to DR. They divided into four categories: participant side, market side, in term of reliability and market performance.

The profits of DR programs are not only for participants welfare but also some are market focused, e.g. the reduction of overall demand results in reduction in expenses of newly installed generating units. Reliability assets can be considered as one of the market- focused aid because they affected the all programs participants [9].

The last category of DR program is improving electricity market performance [10]. Consumers can control the power of market using market based programs and spirited pricing programs [11-12].

A brief literature survey to understand the concept and applications of demand side management/demand response is presented in the following sections:

  • Wind and Renewable Integration

Demand response has been studied broadly as a tool to enable better, more efficient
integration of wind and other renewable generation resources. The dynamic recurring,
uncertainty, variability and volatility of wind can be prevented with demand response in a fast and cost-effective manner [13-18].

  • Market and Remuneration

It demonstrated the procedure in which the power detachment on the consumer side is rewarded. It can be divided as price based, incentive based and combination of both called hybrid. In PBP, users lower their uses according to the spirited change price imposed by operator or by the energy stock market. IBP assume that users are separately or conjointly committed to lower their consumption during a certain peak time period. Price based and incentive based methods are collectively called hybrid DR program [19-23].

  • Behavioral Analysis of Different Types of Users

The classification of the participating consumers can be entrenched based on behavioral analysis of users and precedent that go from average level consumption to techno-economic and socio-economic level. In it, the distribution has been facilitating according to the types of user [24-28].

  1. TECHNIQUES USED IN DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT

DSM alters the electricity consumption to yield the desired changes in the load contour at distribution side. To avoid the peak demand, DSM concentrates [29] on power saving methodologies, electricity rates, fiscal incentives and user/environment friendly government policies., Due to increase in electricity demand, system become unstable and to avoid this instabilities, a worthy goal of demand side management finalized that could be to alter the configuration of the load curve by lowering and shifting the total load demand at distribution side during peak load periods in sequence to  reduce the final tariff of electricity. So the system requires an enlightened coordination between operators and consumers. The load configurations which show the daily electric demands of  residential, commercial and industrial consumers between peak time and off peak times can be changed by means of six broad methods [29] [30]: peak clipping, load shifting, valley filling, load growth, strategic conservation and flexible load curve. These six topologies of demand side management are shown in Fig. 4. Peak clipping and valley filling methods focused on leveling the peak and valley load levels to avert the anxiety of insecurity of smart grid. Peak clip method [29] [30] is a direct load control (DLC) method. Load shifting [29] [30] is globally applied effectively as load management technique by shifting the loads from peak consumption time to off peak consumption time. Strategic conservation [29] intends to apply  demand curtail methods directly at customer houses, to achieve load shape optimization. Strategic load growth [29] [30] approximate equals to valley fill technique but it used in case of large demand to optimizes the daily response. Flexible load shape [29] [30] is mainly associated to smart grid reliability. Smart grid management systems (SGMS) find the customers with flexible controlled loads during peak load in trading for various financial incentives or rewards.

Fig.4. Demand side management techniques [31]

 

By Prof. Ankit Kumar Sharma,
Department of Electrical Engineering,
University of Engineering & Management (UEM), Jaipur

 

 

REFERENCES:

  1. Li, Qilin, and Mingtian Zhou. “The future-oriented grid-smart grid.” Journal of computers 6, no. 1 (2011): 98-105.
  2. Agrawal, Poonum. “Overview of DOE microgrid activities.” In Symposium on Microgrid, Montreal, June, vol. 23. 2006.
  3. Albadi, Mohamed H., and Ehab F. El-Saadany. “A summary of demand response in electricity markets.” Electric power systems research 78, no. 11 (2008): 1989-1996.
  4. Herter, Karen, Patrick McAuliffe, and Arthur Rosenfeld. “An exploratory analysis of California residential customer response to critical peak pricing of electricity.” Energy 32, no. 1 (2007): 25-34.
  5. Piette MA, Sezgen O, Watson DS, Motegi N, Shockman C, Ten Hope L (2005) Development and evaluation of fully automated demand response in large facilities, CEC-500-2005-013, LBNL-55085
  6. Valero, S., M. Ortiz, C. Senabre, C. A. A. C. Alvarez, F. J. G. Franco, and A. Gabaldon. “Methods for customer and demand response policies selection in new electricity markets.” IET generation, transmission & distribution 1, no. 1 (2007): 104-110.
  7. Sezgen, Osman, C. A. Goldman, and P. Krishnarao. “Option value of electricity demand response.” Energy 32, no. 2 (2007): 108-119.
  8. Albadi, Mohamed H., and Ehab F. El-Saadany. “Demand response in electricity markets: An overview.” In 2007 IEEE power engineering society general meeting, pp. 1-5. IEEE, 2007.
  9. Goel, L., Qiuwei Wu, and Peng Wang. “Reliability enhancement of a deregulated power system considering demand response.” In 2006 IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, pp. 6-pp. IEEE, 2006.
  10. Spees, Kathleen, and Lester B. Lave. “Demand response and electricity market efficiency.” The Electricity Journal 20, no. 3 (2007): 69-85.
  11. Barbose G, Goldman C, Neenan B (2004) A survey of utility experience with real time pricing, Berkeley, LBNL-54238.
  12. Caves, Douglas, Kelly Eakin, and Ahmad Faruqui. “Mitigating price spikes in wholesale markets through market-based pricing in retail markets.” The Electricity Journal 13, no. 3 (2000): 13-23.
  13. DeMeo, Edgar A., William Grant, Michael R. Milligan, and Matthew J. Schuerger. “Wind plant integration [wind power plants].” IEEE Power and Energy Magazine 3, no. 6 (2005): 38-46.
  14. Smith, J. Charles, Michael R. Milligan, Edgar A. DeMeo, and Brian Parsons. “Utility wind integration and operating impact state of the art.” IEEE transactions on power systems 22, no. 3 (2007): 900-908.
  15. DeMeo, Edgar A., Gary A. Jordan, Clint Kalich, Jack King, Michael R. Milligan, Cliff Murley, Brett Oakleaf, and Matthew J. Schuerger. “Accommodating wind’s natural behavior.” IEEE power and energy magazine 5, no. 6 (2007): 59-67.
  16. Papavasiliou, Anthony, and Shmuel S. Oren. “Coupling wind generators with deferrable loads.” In 2008 IEEE Energy 2030 Conference, pp. 1-7. IEEE, 2008.
  17. Sioshansi, Ramteen. “Evaluating the impacts of real-time pricing on the cost and value of wind generation.” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 25, no. 2 (2009): 741-748.
  18. Dietrich, Kristin, Jesus M. Latorre, Luis Olmos, and Andres Ramos. “Demand response in an isolated system with high wind integration.” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems 27, no. 1 (2011): 20-29.
  19. Cheng, Yu, Nan Dong, and Yangkai Ren. “Investigation on electric load peak and valley characters and demand response evaluation based on spectral analysis.” In 2011 International Conference on Advanced Power System Automation and Protection, vol. 2, pp. 1258-1262. IEEE, 2011.
  20. Wu, Jiasheng, Xin Ai, Yuequn Zhao, and Dawei Wu. “Research on modeling and appliance of a new price mechanism demand response.” In 2013 IEEE PES Asia-Pacific Power and Energy Engineering Conference (APPEEC), pp. 1-5. IEEE, 2013.
  21. Abdullah, Muhammad Mehroze, and Barry Dwolatzky. “Demand-side energy management performed using direct feedback via mobile systems: Enables utilities to deploy consumer based demand response programs.” In 2010 IEEE International Energy Conference, pp. 172-177. IEEE, 2010.
  22. Mathieu, Johanna L., Duncan S. Callaway, and Sila Kiliccote. “Examining uncertainty in demand response baseline models and variability in automated responses to dynamic pricing.” In 2011 50th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference, pp. 4332-4339. IEEE, 2011.
  23. Panapakidis, Ioannis P., Sofia I. Frantza, and Grigoris K. Papagiannis. “Implementation of price-based demand response programs through a load pattern clustering process.” (2014): 53-8.
  24. Andreou, Georgios T., Andreas L. Symeonidis, Christos Diou, Pericles A. Mitkas, and Dimitrios P. Labridis. “A framework for the implementation of large scale Demand Response.” In 2012 International Conference on Smart Grid Technology, Economics and Policies (SG-TEP), pp. 1-4. IEEE, 2012.
  25. Shipman, R., M. Gillott, and E. Naghiyev. “SWITCH: Case studies in the demand side management of washing appliances.” Energy Procedia 42 (2013): 153-162.
  26. Khomami, Hadis Pourasghar, and Mohammad Hossein Javidi. “An efficient home energy management system for automated residential demand response.” In 2013 13th international conference on environment and electrical engineering (EEEIC), pp. 307-312. IEEE, 2013.
  27. Liu, Baoshi, and Qi Wei. “Home energy control algorithm research based on demand response programs and user comfort.” In Proceedings of 2013 2nd International Conference on Measurement, Information and Control, vol. 2, pp. 995-999. IEEE, 2013.
  28. Shen, Shulin, Yuan Zhao, Jindong Pang, Weihua Yu, and Kai Wu. “Exploring the use value of air conditioners in residential peak demand response.” In 2012 China International Conference on Electricity Distribution, pp. 1-5. IEEE, 2012.
  29. Wu, Zhou, and Xiaohua Xia. “A Portfolio Approach of Demand Side Management.” IFAC-PapersOnLine 50, no. 1 (2017): 171-176.
  30. Meyabadi, A. Fattahi, and M. H. Deihimi. “A review of demand-side management: Reconsidering theoretical framework.” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 80 (2017): 367-379.
  31. Sharma, Ankit Kumar, and Akash Saxena. “A demand side management control strategy using Whale optimization algorithm.” SN Applied Sciences 1, no. 8 (2019): 870.

 

Timeline and Generations of Intel Processor

Brief Timeline and Generations of Intel processor

As we all know, Intel is well known for a giant processor manufacturing brand. As we look behind about 10 – 15 years, there wasn’t any brand which stand in front of Intel. At that time, mostly Intel processors were used in all the computers. As the time passes, advancement of technology imparts best out of best Intel processors. But in today’s world, there is a brand which is known to be a good competitor to the Intel brand and is known as AMD.

Brief Timeline of Intel Processor Advancement

1.  1971 Intel ® 4004 processor

Intel 4004 Processor · Initial clock speed: 108 KHz
· Transistors: 2,300
· Manufacturing technology: 10 micron.

2. 1972 Intel® 8008 processor

Intel 8008 Processor · Initial clock speed: 800 KHz
· Transistors: 3,500
· Manufacturing technology: 10 micron.

3. 1974 Intel® 8080 processor

Intel 8080 Processor · Initial clock speed: 2 MHz
· Transistors: 4,500
· Manufacturing technology: 6 micron.

4. 1978 Intel® 8086 processor

Intel 8086 Processor · Initial clock speed: 5 MHz
· Transistors: 29,000
· Manufacturing technology: 3 micron.

5. 1982 Intel® 286™ processor

Intel 286 Processor · Initial clock speed: 6 MHz
· Transistors: 134,000
· Manufacturing technology: 1.5 micron.

6. 1985 Intel 386™ processor

Intel 386 Processor · Initial clock speed: 16 MHz
· Transistors: 275,000
· Manufacturing technology: 1.5 micron.

7. 1989 Intel 486™ processor

Intel 486 Processor · Initial clock speed: 25 MHz
· Transistors: 1.2 million
· Manufacturing technology: 1 micron.

8. 1993 Intel® Pentium® processor


Intel Pentium Processor · Initial clock speed: 66 MHz
· Transistors: 3.1 million
· Manufacturing technology: 0.8 micron.

9. 1995 Intel® Pentium® Pro processor

Intel Pentium Pro Process · Initial clock speed: 200 MHz
· Transistors: 5.5 million
· Manufacturing technology: 0.35 micron.

10. 1997 Intel® Pentium ll® processor

Intel Pentium ll Processor · Initial clock speed: 300 MHz
· Transistors: 7.5 million
· Manufacturing technology: 0.25 micron.

11. 1998 Intel® Celeron® processor

Intel Celeron Processor · Initial clock speed: 266 MHz
· Transistors: 7.5 million
· Manufacturing technology: 0.25 micron.

12. 1999 Intel® Pentium® III processor

Intel Pentium lll Processor · Initial clock speed: 600 MHz
· Transistors: 9.5 million
· Manufacturing technology: 0.25 micron.

13. 2000 Intel® Pentium® 4 processor

Intel Pentium 4 Processor · Initial clock speed: 1.5 GHz
· Transistors: 42 million
· Manufacturing technology: 0.18 micron.

14. 2001 Intel® Xeon® processor

Intel Xeon Processor · Initial clock speed: 1.7 GHz
· Transistors: 42 million
· Manufacturing technology: 0.18 micron.

15. 2003 Intel® Pentium® M processor

Intel Pentium M Processor · Initial clock speed: 1.7 GHz
· Transistors: 55 million
· Manufacturing technology: 90 nm

16. 2006 Intel® Core™2 Duo processor

Intel Core 2 Duo Processor · Initial clock speed: 2.66 GHz
· Transistors: 291 million
· Manufacturing technology: 65 nm

17. 2008 Intel® Core™2 Duo processor

Intel Core 2 Duo Processor · Initial clock speed: 2.4 GHz
· Transistors: 410 million
· Manufacturing technology: 45 nm

18. 2008 Intel® Atom™ processor

Intel Atom Processor · Initial clock speed: 1.86 GHz
· Transistors: 47 million
· Manufacturing technology: 45 nm

19. 2010 2nd generation Intel® Core™ processor


2nd Generation Intel Core Processor · Initial clock speed: 3.8 GHz
· Transistors: 1.16 billion
· Manufacturing technology: 32 nm

20. 2012 3rd generation Intel® Core™ processor

3rd Generation Intel Core Processor · Initial clock speed: 2.9 GHz
· Transistors: 1.4 billion
· Manufacturing technology: 22 nm

Generations of Intel Core Processor
Whenever you see the various ranges of Intel processors, you might notice a thing that Intel releases its series of processors in a generation wise manner. Do you know what’s the fact behind this? As we all know that technology is improving and updating rapidly as the time and days are passing through. So, whenever the improved or better technology has implemented in the processors, Intel releases its processors with new edition. These series of new edition of processors are released by the Intel in the form of new generation. Basically, sequence of releasing the processors in these generations start after the commencement of Core i-series processors (i3, i5, i7, i9 CPUs).

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Timeline and Generations of Intel Processor


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By

Dushyant Dubey

EQUITY RELEASE-A GUARDIAN MECHANISM FOR AGED PEOPLE

Equity release refers to a range of products letting you access the equity (cash) tied up in your home if you are over the age of 55. You can take the money you release as a lump sum or, in several smaller amounts or as a combination of both.

Since equity release is for old people, usually retired, it is not easy repaying the loan. The good thing is you do not need to do so right away. Since you already used your property against the loan, you grant the creditor the right to sell it once you die or you move into hospital care.

Releasing equity takes on average around 8-12 weeks. Choosing a specialist equity release solicitor can help ensure your application runs smoothly and your money is in your bank account as soon as possible.

If you are still unsure if equity release is the right way to move forward, it is understandable. It is a significant risk involving your property. Therefore, you need to speak with advisers who will tell you what to do. These are the benefits of choosing an equity release adviser.

Now let’s discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of Equity Release.

Advantages

  • You can get a tax-free lump sum and/or smaller, regular payments to supplement your income, and can continue to live in your home until you die or move into permanent residential care.
  • You may continue to benefit from any rise in the value of your property.
  • You can still move to a suitable alternative property in the future, as equity release is transferable. It will be subject to your new home meeting the property suitability criteria applicable at the time.
  • With a lifetime mortgage, you continue to live in and keep ownership of your home.

Disadvantages

  • Equity release reduces the value of your estate and the amount that will go to the people named as beneficiaries in your will. Your estate is everything you own, including money, property, possessions and investments.
  • With a home reversion plan, the reversion company owns all or a part-share of your home.
  • Getting a lump sum or taking extra cash to supplement your income may reduce your entitlement to means-tested benefits, now or in the future.
  • If you get care at home funded fully or partially by the local council, they may start charging you or ask you to pay more.

Prof. Dr. Lata Rani Mutti,
School of Management,
University of Engineering & Management (UEM), Jaipur

UEM Civil-O-Tech

About us

To ensure a better, smarter, sustainable, eco-friendly and economical stack of engineering technologies for a better world. As a Civil engineer, it is the key role to look after all the things needed for the development of life along with the progress of a nation. Geological, Geo-technical, Structural, Irrigation, Disaster Management, Transportation, everywhere, a civil engineer is responsible to use appropriate technology. Hence, emphasizing on the needs of the future, with adequate utilization of resources for the present, we need to develop faster, better and smarter technologies, which is the main aim here.

Our motto: “Advanced engineering for a better world

Journey so far

All this started with a small idea in mind, that in the campus, had there been a specialized project group, to invigilate the quality of projects and motivate the students to showcase their ideas into reality. Civilotech started with only 5 members initially. Now, there are many students performing so well in execution of projects day by day. Engineering projects and technologies do not depend on a particular branch of a student; rather, it focuses on the idea, the innovation that the student is trying to deliver. Members of Civilotech group are active participators in seminars, workshops, project exhibitions, industrial visits and public speaking events.

This project group was undertaken by Civil department of UEM Jaipur, under the expertise and guidance of Prof. Subhro Chakraborty, HOD. Civil-o-tech has also its highly experienced project guide and mentor, Prof. DrUmesh Kumar Das, who has brimming knowledge about projects and research activities. Civil-o-tech is active in research papers. Many patented projects are built in the campus by the project group members and project mentor. Civil-o-tech has gained its fame and craze, by achieving its targets and winning several awards. The University has provided constant flow of capital to raise projects, to which Civil-o-tech is grateful. Also, Civil-o-tech has name in the prestigious SIH (Smart India Hackathon) and CVA (Chhatra Viswakarma Awards). Training and Skill Development sessions are frequent in this group. It enhances the participation and enthusiasm of the students to implement their theoretical knowledge along with their innovations.

Not only in the field of construction technology and projects, the project group has also ornamented itself with highly skilled workforce in the design sector. Sustainable and aesthetic designs are developed, trained, planned and executed. Also, project planning and estimation is also practiced to make the members as good and efficient as a project manager.

Glimpses of the projects by Civilotech are:

  1. SMS (Surface-water Management System)

In our modern civilization we are going to face a big problem which is water. Water is very essential for survival of human being, trees and every animal. For save the water we have brought a new innovation in this project which is SURFACE-WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(S.M.S.). This project can be the most efficient projects so far in the field of Transportation as well as Water Resources. It focuses on reusing of the flooded run-off water over roads and turning it productive, i.e., the flooded water is naturally filtered and stored for use in various purposes.

  1. BhramanSathi (Smart Road Management System)

This is an integrated Smart Road Management System (SRMS) which serves as an alert system to provide more safer and quicker transportation on the roads, especially in the hilly terrains, sharp turns, foggy weathers and reduced sight distanced roads. This project can reduce the number of accidents happening on roads with its advanced features. The application of this system is very simple and it is economically feasible. Whenever a vehicle is moving near a steep curve, it crosses a sensor and hence, red warning lights are automatically switched ON, on the opposite side where there is a chance of some other vehicle approaching. After the vehicle has passes a certain coordinate, then the warning lights gets OFF. Hence this system can serve really efficient in everyday life!

  1. Merry – Go – Drip (Smart Agro System, Go-green scheme) (ONGOING)

Introducing the new, unique ever smart agricultural system, that uses the minimum amount of space and maximizing profit. Specially, for the development of nursery, recreation and small horticulture purpose, this project tends to stand unique with its features. Hence, the future scope of this model seems high enough, especially for Developed and Developing nations. The trend of business, associated with agriculture, is really going to renovate itself, after this unique project. Make in India can really earn a “Golden –Green” title from it. The idea is patented in India.

There are many projects out there, also, research papers, exhibitions, posts, gallery, etc; just go and have a watch at our own website: https://civilotech.uem.edu.in

The family

The Civilotech family promises the best environment of guidance, motivation, fun and learning. There are students from different branches and different years, but collectively work together as a team. The members in the present are: Sougata Banerjee, SubhajitMaity, Kajori Gupta, MdAfnanAlam, AnupamKuiti, Srishti Saini, Fardin Hakim Khan and KabitaMoktan from 2017 batch and Pritha Sen, Saikat Das, Avishek Sen and Krishna Gupta from 2018 batch.

 

Ever analyzed you as how it feels as an engineer? What are the practical aspects? How it feels when you execute a project, say ‘The Statue of Unity’?

Come and join us! Experience the World of Engineering here, in the Civil-o-tech family!

Prof. Subhro Chakraborty,
Head, Department of Civil Engineering,
University of Engineering & Management (UEM), Jaipur
Email: [email protected]

Prof. Dr. Umesh Kumar Das,
Faculty Co-ordinator,
Civil-O-Tech
Email: [email protected]

Sougata Banerjee
Admin, Civilotech
Email: [email protected]
Whatsapp: 9775153675
Website: https://civilotech.uem.edu.in

Subhajit Maity, Kajori Gupta, Md Afnan Alam, Anupam Kuiti, Srishti Saini, Fardin Hakim Khan, Kabita Moktan, Krishna Gupta, Pritha Sen, Saikat Das, Avishek Sen

Website: https://civilotech.uem.edu.in

Operational Research: During World War- II

Operational research (OR) encompasses the development and the use of a wide range of problem-solving techniques and methods applied in the pursuit of improved decision-making and efficiency, such as simulationmathematical optimizationqueuing theory and other stochastic-process models, Markov decision processeseconometric methodsdata envelopment analysisneural networksexpert systemsdecision analysis, and the analytic hierarchy process.  Nearly all of these techniques involve the construction of mathematical models that attempt to describe the system. Because of the computational and statistical nature of most of these fields, OR also has strong ties to computer science and analytics. Operational researchers faced with a new problem must determine which of these techniques are most appropriate given the nature of the system, the goals for improvement, and constraints on time and computing power, or develop a new technique specific to the problem at hand.

World War- II

The modern field of operational research arose during World War II. In the World War II era, operational research was defined as “a scientific method of providing executive departments with a quantitative basis for decisions regarding the operations under their control”.

During the Second World War close to 1,000 men and women in Britain were engaged in operational research. About 200 operational research scientists worked for the British Army.

Patrick Blackett worked for several different organizations during the war. Early in the war while working for the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) he set up a team known as the “Circus” which helped to reduce the number of anti-aircraft artillery rounds needed to shoot down an enemy aircraft from an average of over 20,000 at the start of the Battle of Britain to 4,000 in 1941.

In 1941, Blackett moved from the RAE to the Navy, after first working with RAF Coastal Command, in 1941 and then early in 1942 to the Admiralty. Blackett’s team at Coastal Command’s Operational Research Section (CC-ORS) included two future Nobel prize winners and many other people who went on to be pre-eminent in their fields. They undertook a number of crucial analyses that aided the war effort. Britain introduced the convoy system to reduce shipping losses, but while the principle of using warships to accompany merchant ships was generally accepted, it was unclear whether it was better for convoys to be small or large. Convoys travel at the speed of the slowest member, so small convoys can travel faster. It was also argued that small convoys would be harder for German U-boats to detect. On the other hand, large convoys could deploy more warships against an attacker. Blackett’s staff showed that the losses suffered by convoys depended largely on the number of escort vessels present, rather than the size of the convoy. Their conclusion was that a few large convoys are more defensible than many small ones.

The “exchange rate” ratio of output to input was a characteristic feature of operational research. By comparing the number of flying hours put in by Allied aircraft to the number of U-boat sightings in a given area, it was possible to redistribute aircraft to more productive patrol areas. Comparison of exchange rates established “effectiveness ratios” useful in planning. The ratio of 60 mines laid per ship sunk was common to several campaigns: German mines in British ports, British mines on German routes, and United States mines in Japanese routes.

Operational research doubled the on-target bomb rate of B-29s bombing Japan from the Marianas Islands by increasing the training ratio from 4 to 10 percent of flying hours; revealed that wolf-packs of three United States submarines were the most effective number to enable all members of the pack to engage targets discovered on their individual patrol stations; revealed that glossy enamel paint was more effective camouflage for night fighters than traditional dull camouflage paint finish, and a smooth paint finish increased airspeed by reducing skin friction.

On land, the operational research sections of the Army Operational Research Group (AORG) of the Ministry of Supply (MoS) were landed in Normandy in 1944, and they followed British forces in the advance across Europe. They analyzed, among other topics, the effectiveness of artillery, aerial bombing and anti-tank shooting.

Thanks and Regards

Prof. Dr. Praphull Chhabra,
Department of Mathematics and Statistics,
University of Engineering & Management (UEM), Jaipur